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The madness was most pronounced in the Arcane magic users. Some simply ended their lives in a blast of arcane power [which some theorize added to the spell storm] Others began summoning vast numbers of otherworld creatures and monsters. Tearing open portals into nightmare and horror. Yet others become undead in an attempt to forestall the madness [there is yet more theories that some misguided idea led to the wasting (which is the disease that causes people to turn undead)]
Madness caused by this unexplained connection with magic is aggravated by increased usage of magic. This has lead to the creation of further Runes beyond the Heart Rune which is now tattooed at birth. Common non-adepts only ever need the Heart rune, but adepts commonly need additional runes to block the encroaching madness. These are the rune of the mind, body, name and soul. As the adepts gain in power they require further runes to filter the magic they are accessing.
Madness is measured in a number which if it ever hits the same as the wisdom bonus of the character causes them to fall into irretrievable madness [no longer under character control]. Under normal game play this should not come up all that often except under certain circumstances.
If for example a player decides to “over channel” and use a daily ability an extra time they gain a point of madness if they fail a will save dc 20+(level of the ability). This is something that is only advisable under the direst circumstance.